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Gross Motor Developmental Milestones

If your child is not meeting these milestones, ask a Physical Therapist about your concerns.

At birth to 3 months, your child:

Lifts and turns her head when on her stomach
When on his back, will turn his head to hear or see something
Random movements become more purposeful but are typically large, jerky movements
Brings hands to mouth
Grasp is a reflex

At 3-6 months, your child:

Actively moves arm (reaches and swipes) when she sees an object of interest
Grasps object voluntarily
Plays with his own hands and feet
Watches/plays with hands/toys at midline
Transfers toys from hand to hand
When on her stomach, lifts head and chest with weight on hands
Holds head upright and steady
Rolls from stomach to back and back to stomach

At 6-9 months, your child:

Uses his index finger to poke
Holds an object in each hand and plays with each
Transfers objects from hand to hand
Pivots on stomach
Pulls herself to hands and knees
Sits without help, playing with toys

At 9-12 months, your child:

Picks things up with pincer grasp (thumb and one finger)
Drops and picks up a toy
Manipulates toys with hands and fingers
Uses both hands together to play
Creeps (moves forward on hands and knees)
Pulls to standing
Stands without support
Walks with support
Can take independent steps

At 12-18 months, your child:

Walks alone
Begins to walk sideways and backwards
Comes to standing without support
Crawls up and down stairs
Picks up small objects
Stacks one object on top of another
Puts objects in and dumps them out of containers
Pulls apart objects, such as pop beads
Fits single puzzle pieces

At 2-3 years, your child:

Walks well, runs, stops, steps up, squats down
Walks on tiptoes
Walks up stairs with an alternating foot pattern with one hand on rail
Walks down stairs with a same-step foot placement
Jumps two inches off ground or over a 2-inch hurdle
Jumps down from a step height
Stands on one leg for 1-3 seconds
Kicks a ball 3-6 feet
Throws a ball underhand
Begins learning to catch a ball from a short distance
Stacks more than one object (blocks)
Strings large beads
Imitates drawing horizontal lines or circular scribble

At 3-4 years, your child:

Can run around obstacles
Can stand on one foot for 3-5 seconds
Stands on tiptoes for 3-5 seconds
Can walk on a line without stepping off
Can hop on one foot
Rides a tricycle
Can jump forward, down, and over objects with feet together
Catches a medium-sized ball
Throws a ball overhand and underhand
Can build a tower of 9 small cubes
Copies drawing of a circle
Imitates drawing a cross
Cuts paper in half

At 4-5 years, your child:

Can stand on one foot for 10 seconds
Stands on tiptoes for 8 seconds without moving feet
Hops forward on one foot for 5 hops
Walks on a line backwards
Can complete a forward roll/somersault
Gallops and skips forward
Walks up and down stairs, alternating steps, without support from the wall/rail
Catches a tennis ball
Cuts on a line continuously
Copies a cross and a square
Prints some letters

At 5-6 years, your child:

Skips, maintaining balance and rhythm
Hops forward 20 feet without losing balance or letting the other foot touch the floor
Jumps rope
Walks on a balance beam
Jumps over hurdles 10 inches high with a two-footed take-off and landing
Jumps sideways back and forth
Cuts out simple shapes
Copies a triangle and prints his/her name
Colors within the lines
Has a mature grasp of a pencil
Handedness is well established